Using Module Federation with Monorepos and Angular

The combination of Micro Frontends and monorepos can be quite tempting: Sharing libraries is easy while we can isolate domains using access restrictions and deploy them…

This article is part of a series:


The combination of Micro Frontends and monorepos can be quite tempting: Monorepos make it easy to share libraries. Thanks to access restrictions, individual business domains can be isolated. Also, having all micro frontends in the same monorepo doesn't prevent us from deploying them separately.

This article gives some hints about using Module Federation for such a scenario. While the examples use a Nx workspace, the principal ideas can also be implemented with a classic Angular workspace. However, as you will see, Nx provides some really powerful features that make your life easier, e. g. the possibility of generating a visual dependency graph or finding out which applications have been changed and hence need to be redeployed.

If you want to have a look at the source code used here, you can check out this repository.

Big thanks to the awesome Tobias Koppers who gave me valuable insights into this topic and to the one and only Dmitriy Shekhovtsov who helped me using the Angular CLI/webpack 5 integration for this.


The example used here is a Nx monorepo with a micro frontend shell (shell) and a micro frontend (mfe1, "micro frontend 1"). Both share a common library for authentication (auth-lib) that is also located in the monorepo:

The auth-lib provides two components. One is logging-in users and the other one displays the current user. They are used by both, the shell and mfe1:


Also, the auth-lib stores the current user's name in a service.

As usual in Nx and Angular monorepos, libraries are referenced with path mappings defined in tsconfig.json (or tsconfig.base.json according to your project setup):

"paths": {
    "@demo/auth-lib": [

The shell and mfe1 (as well as further micro frontends we might add in the future) need to be deployable in separation and loaded at runtime. However, we don't want to load the auth-lib twice or several times! Archiving this with an npm package is not that difficult. This is one of the most obvious and easy to use features of Module Federation. The next sections discuss how to do the same with libraries of a monorepo.

The Shared Lib

Before we delve into the solution, let's have a look at the auth-lib. It contains an AuthService that logs-in the user and remebers them using the property _userName:

  providedIn: 'root'
export class AuthService {

  // tslint:disable-next-line: variable-name
  private _userName: string = null;

  public get userName(): string {
    return this._userName;

  constructor() { }

  login(userName: string, password: string): void {
    this._userName = userName;

  logout(): void {
    this._userName = null;

The authentication method I'm using here, is what I'm calling "Authentication for honest users TM". Besides this service, there is also a AuthComponent with the UI for logging-in the user and a UserComponent displaying the current user's name. Both components are registered with the library's NgModule:

  imports: [
  declarations: [
  exports: [
export class AuthLibModule {}

As every library, it also has a barrel index.ts (sometimes also called public-api.ts) serving as the entry point. It exports everything consumers can use:

export * from './lib/auth-lib.module';
export * from './lib/auth.service';

// Don't forget about your components!
export * from './lib/auth/auth.component';
export * from './lib/user/user.component';

Please note that index.ts is also exporting the two components although they are already registered with the also exported AuthLibModule. In the scenario discussed here, this is vital in order to make sure it's detected and compiled by Ivy.

The Module Federation Configuration

As in the previous article, we are using the @angular-architects/module-federation plugin to enable Module Federation for the shell and mfe1. For this, just run this command twice and answer the plugin's questions:

ng add @angular-architects/module-federation

This generates a webpack config for Module Federation. The latest version of the plugin uses a helper class called SharedMapping:

const ModuleFederationPlugin = require("webpack/lib/container/ModuleFederationPlugin");
const mf = require("@angular-architects/module-federation/webpack");
const path = require("path");

const sharedMappings = new mf.SharedMappings();
    path.join(__dirname, '../../tsconfig.base.json'),
    ['@demo/auth-lib']  // <-- register your libs here!

module.exports = {
  output: {
    uniqueName: "mfe1"
  optimization: {
    // Only needed to bypass a temporary bug
    runtimeChunk: false
  plugins: [
    new ModuleFederationPlugin({
      name: "mfe1",
      filename: "remoteEntry.js",
      exposes: {
          './Module': './apps/mfe1/src/app/flights/flights.module.ts',
      shared: {
        "@angular/core": { singleton: true, strictVersion: true },
        "@angular/common": { singleton: true, strictVersion: true },
        "@angular/router": { singleton: true, strictVersion: true },

Everything you need to do is registering the library's mapped name with the sharedMappings instance at the top of this file.

For the time being, this is all we need to know. In a section below, I'm going to explain what SharedMappings is doing and why it's a good idea to hide these details in such a convenience class.

Trying it out

To try this out, just start the two applications:

ng serve shell -o
ng serve mfe1 -o

Then, log-in in the shell and make it to load mfe1. If you see the logged-in user name in mfe1, you have the proof that auth-lib is only loaded once and shared across the applications.


As normally, libraries don't have versions in a monorepo, we should always redeploy all the changed micro frontends together. Fortunately, Nx helps with finding out which applications/ micro frontends have been changed or affected by a change. For this, just run the affected:apps script:

npm run affected:apps

You might also want to detect the changed applications as part of your CI pipeline. To make implementing such an automation script easier, leverage the Nx CLI (npm i -g @nrwl/cli) and call the affected:apps script with the --plain switch:

nx affected:apps --plain

This switch makes the CLI to print out all affected apps in one line of the console separated by a space. Hence, this result can be easily parsed by your scripts.

Also, as the micro frontends loaded into the shell don't know each other upfront but only meet at runtime, it's a good idea to rely on some e2e tests.

What Happens Behind the Covers?

So far, we've just treated the SharedMappings class as a black box. Now, let's find out what it does for us behind the covers.

Its method getDescriptors returns the needed entries for the shared section in the configuration:

"@demo/auth-lib": {
    import: path.resolve(__dirname, "../../libs/auth-lib/src/index.ts"),
    requiredVersion: false

These entries look a bit different than the ones we are used to. Instead of pointing to an npm package to share, it directly points to the library's entry point using its import property. The right path is taken from the mappings in the tsconfig.json.

Normally, Module Federation knows which version of a shared library is needed because it looks into the project's package.json. However, in the case of a monorepo, shared libraries (very often) don't have a version. Hence, requiredVersion is set to false. This makes Module Federation accepting an existing shared instance of this library without drawing its very version into consideration.

However, to make this work, we should always redeploy all changed parts of our overall system together, as proposed above.

The second thing SharedMappings is doing, is rewriting the imports of the code produced by the Angular compiler. This is necessary because the code generated by the Angular compiler references shared libraries with a relative path:

import { UserComponent } from '../../libs/auth-lib/src/lib/user/user.component.ts';

However, to make Module Federation only sharing one version of our lib(s), we need to import them using a consistent name like @demo/auth-lib:

import { UserComponent } from '@demo/auth-lib';

For this, SharedMappings provides a method called getPlugin returning a configured NormalModuleReplacementPlugin instance that takes care of rewriting such imports. The key data needed here is take from tsconfig.json.

Bonus: Versions in the Monorepo

As stated before, normally libraries don't have a version in a monorepo. The consequence is that we need to redeploy all the changed application together. This makes sure, all applications can work with the shared libs.

However, Module Federation is really flexible and hence it even allows to define versions for libraries in a monorepo. In the case of npm packages, both, the version provided by the library but also the versions needed by its consumers are defined in the respective package.json files.

In our monorepo, we don't have either, hence we need to pass this information directly to Module Federation. If we didn't use the SharedMappings convenience class, we needed to place such an object into the config's shared section:

"auth-lib": {
    import: path.resolve(__dirname, "../../libs/auth-lib/src/index.ts"),
    version: '1.0.0',
    requiredVersion: '^1.0.0'

Here, version is the actual library version while requiredVersion is the version (range) the consumer (micro frontend or shell) accepts. To prevent repeating the library version in all the configurations for all the micro frontends, we could centralize it. Perhaps, you want to create a package.json in the library's folder:

  "name": "@demo/auth-lib",
  "version": "1.0.0",

Now, the webpack config of a specific micro frontend/ of the shell only needs to contain the accepted version (range) using requiredVersion:

"@demo/auth-lib": {
    import: path.resolve(__dirname, "../../libs/auth-lib/src/index.ts"),
    version: require('relative_path_to_lib/package.json').version,
    requiredVersion: '^1.0.0'

Because of this, we don't need to redeploy all the changed applications together anymore. Using the provided versions, Module Federation decides at runtime which micro frontends can safely share the same instance of a library and which micro frontends need to fall back to another version (e. g. the own one).

The drawback of this approach is that we need to rely on the authors of the libraries and the micro frontends to manage this meta data correctly. Also, if two micro frontends need two non-compatible versions of a shared library, the library is loaded twice. This is not only bad for performance but also leads to an issue in the case of stateful libraries as the state is duplicated. In our case, both auth-lib instances could store their own user name.

If you decide to go this road, the SharedMappings class has you covered. The getDescriptor method generates the shared entry needed for the passed library. Its second argument takes the expected version (range):

new ModuleFederationPlugin({
  shared: {
    ...sharedMappings.getDescriptor('@demo/auth-lib', '^1.0.0')

The rest of the configuration would be as discussed above.


When using this approach, you might encounter some pitfalls. They are due to the fact that the CLI/webpack5 integration is still experimental in Angular 11 but also because we treat a folder with uncompiled typescript files like an npm package.

Bug with styleUrls

Currently, there is, unfortunately, a bug in the experimental CLI/webpack5 integration causing issues when using shared libraries together with components pointing to styleUrls. For the time being, you can work around this issue by removing all styleUrls in your applications and libraries.

Sharing a library that is not even used

If you shared a local library that is not even used, you get the following error:

./projects/shared-lib/src/public-api.ts - Error: Module build failed (from ./node_modules/@ngtools/webpack/src/index.js):
Error: C:\Users\Manfred\Documents\projekte\mf-plugin\example\projects\shared-lib\src\public-api.ts is missing from the TypeScript compilation. Please make sure it is in your tsconfig via the 'files' or 'include' property.
    at AngularCompilerPlugin.getCompiledFile (C:\Users\Manfred\Documents\projekte\mf-plugin\example\node_modules\@ngtools\webpack\src\angular_compiler_plugin.js:957:23)
    at C:\Users\Manfred\Documents\projekte\mf-plugin\example\node_modules\@ngtools\webpack\src\loader.js:43:31

Not exported Components

If you use a shared component without exporting it via your library's barrel (index.ts or public-api.ts), you get the following error at runtime:

core.js:4610 ERROR Error: Uncaught (in promise): TypeError: Cannot read property 'ɵcmp' of undefined
TypeError: Cannot read property 'ɵcmp' of undefined
    at getComponentDef (core.js:1821)

Conflict: Multiple assets emit different content to the same filename

Add this to the output section of your webpack config:

chunkFilename: '[name]-[contenthash].js',

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